Radiology & Imaging

* Buthiau, Didier

Virtual Endoscopy

Cover not Avail.

RMX Center, Paris, France. Presents the current state-of-the-art in a wide field of research. Abundant illustrations in halftone are included. Includes a chapter describing future perspectives of contrast agents. For radiologists, internists, oncologists, and students. Softcover. Height 10.50, Width: 7.50; 2nd Category: Internal Medicine, 3rd Category: Surgery  

Synopsis
The subject of this book is the study of the relative roles of CT and MRI for all tumors; by contrast comparison with clinical results, the respective indications for these techniques are clarified, in term of diagnosis treatment planning and survey with educational presentation of radiologic signs.

2287596585

1st edition, SPRINGER VERLAG INC. *

2003

Majors title #:2029420001

192 pages

U.S. Contributors:: 3 Foreign Contributors: 85

79.00

 

 

Radiology & Imaging

* Grampp, S.

Radiology of Osteoporosis

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Univ. for Radiology, Wein, Austria. Textbook provides current knowledge on the latest perspectives in pathophysiology and current developments in diagnosis and therapy. The last chapter covers daily clinical practice and outlines the advantages of different methods. DNLM: Osteoporosis--diagnosis. Height 10.50, Width: 7.50; 2nd Category: Orthopedics & Orthopedic Surgery  

Synopsis
This comprehensive overview of osteoporosis considers the pathologic conditions that give rise to osteoporosis and the complications that are frequently encountered. After initial chapters devoted to pathophysiology, the presentation of osteoporosis on conventional radiographs is illustrated and discussed. Thereafter, detailed consideration is given to each of the measurement methods employed to evaluate osteoporosis, including dual x-ray absorptiometry, vertebral morphometry, spinal and peripheral quantitative computed tomography, quantitative ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. The role of densitometry in daily clinical practice is appraised. Finally, a collection of difficult cases involving pitfalls is presented, with guidance to their solution. The information contained in this volume is aimed at all with an interest in osteoporosis.

3540668276

1st edition, SPRINGER VERLAG INC. *

2003

Majors title #:2041678001

202 pages

U.S. Contributors:: Foreign Contributors:

70.00

LC: RC931NLMC: WE 250LCCN:0104914

 

Radiology & Imaging

* Vlaardingerbroek, Marinus T.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Theory and Practice

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Textbook on basic MRI technique. Gives readers the background needed to cope with problems arising when applying MRI in medicine. Contains many images showing specific properties of the different scan methods. Methods discussed include RARE, GRASE, EPI, and Spiral Scan. Previous edition: c1999. Height 9.56, Width: 6.44;  

Synopsis
Offering a comprehensive survey of the analytical treatment of MRI physics and engineering, this text gives readers the background to apply MRI in medicine or design (sub)systems or sequences for new applications. Special attention is paid to the treatment of intrinsic artifacts of the different sequences, which can be described in a mathematically uniform way for the different scan methods. The book contains many images, especially showing specific properties of the different scan methods. The methods discussed include RARE, GRASE, EPI and Spiral Scan. In this third edition, the chapter on motion and flow is expanded, and there is an added chapter on configuration theory and multipulse sequences such as BURST, TSE and FFE. The third edition deals with stranger gradient and new RF coil systems, and sequences such as Balanced FFE and q-space diffusion imaging and SENSE. The book also gives an overview of the early history of MRI imaging.

3540436812

3rd edition, SPRINGER VERLAG INC. *

2003

Majors title #:1511485003

499 pages

U.S. Contributors:: Foreign Contributors:

60.95

 

Table of Contents:
List of Image Sets
xix
Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Historical Introduction 1
MRI and Its Hardware
9
Introduction
9
Spin and Magnetization
9
Precession: Rotating System of Reference
10
Rotation: Excitation by RF Pulses
11
Excitation of a Selected Slice: Gradient Field
13
Free Induction Decay (FID)
15
Spin Echo
16
Determination of Position in the Read-Out Direction
18
Determination of Position in the Phase-Encode Direction
19
Measuring Sequence
19
Object Slice: Voxels and Image Pixels
20
System Architecture
21
Magnets
25
Superconducting Magnets
27
Other Magnet Types
29
Deviations from the Homogeneous Magnetic Field
32
The Gradient Chain
35
Gradient Power Supply and Rise Time
38
Eddy Currents
39
The RF Chain
41
RF Coils
42
The Receiver
48
Physiological Signals
51
The Back End
53
Conventional Imaging Methods
55
Introduction
55
The Bloch Equation
55
Precession
58
Excitation
58
Non-selective Pulse
59
Slice-Selective RF Pulses
59
Other RF Pulses
62
Power Dissipation in an RF Pulse
63
The Spin-Echo Imaging Sequence
64
The k Plane
68
Discrete Sampling
69
Sampling Point-Spread Function
72
Thinking in Terms of k Space
72
Contrast in Spin-Echo Sequences
77
Scan Parameters and System Design
77
Practical Example
79
Multiple-Slice Acquisition
80
Imaging with Three-Dimensional Encoding
81
The Field-Echo Imaging Sequence
82
Artifacts
84
Ghosting
87
Magnetization Preparation
88
A T1 Preparation Pulse: Inversion Recovery
89
Other Types of Magnetization Preparation
91
Imaging Methods with Advanced k-Space Trajectories
135
Introduction
135
Turbo Spin Echo
137
Profile Order
139
Sources of Artifacts in TSE Images
141
Echo Planar Imaging
144
Practical Example
146
Artifacts Due to T*2 Decay and Field Inhomogeneities
147
Artifacts Due to T*2 Decay
148
Artifacts Due to Resonance Offset
150
Artifacts Due to Gradient Field Properties and Errors
151
Combination of TSE and EPI: GRASE
154
Square Spiral Imaging
156
Joyriding in k Space
156
Spiral Imaging
158
A Practical Example
160
Reconstruction
161
Artifacts in Spiral Imaging
163
``Rosette'' Trajectory
165
Radial Imaging
165
Some Remarks on the Reconstruction of Exotic Scans
166
Two-Dimensional Excitation Pulses
167
Steady-State Gradient-Echo Imaging
193
Introduction
193
On FIDs and ECHOs
195
Spin Echo
197
``Eight-Ball'' Echo
198
Stimulated Echo
199
RF Phase
201
Response to RF Pulses with α < 90
202
Echoes as a Result of Many Excitations
203
ECHO Components and RF Phase Cycling
204
Suppressing the Spatial Variation of the Signal
207
Conclusions of the Qualitative Description
208
N-FFE and T2-FFE
209
T1-FFE
209
R-FFE
209
Mathematical Model
210
Rotation and Precession Matrix
211
Relaxation Matrix
212
Steady State
212
Steady-State Gradient-Echo Methods (FE and FFE)
219
Sequences with Very Long TR
219
Sequences with T1 > TR > T2
220
Sequences with Small TR (TR ~ T2)
220
Large Net-Gradient Surface
220
Rephased FFE
224
FID Measurement with Spoiling of M-T: T1-FFE (FLASH)
227
FFE with Short TR in Steady State
228
N-FFE, T2-FFE, and R-FFE with TR <lt; T2
229
T1-FFE with TR <lt; T2
231
Slice Profile
232
Survey of FFE methods
233
Transient-State Gradient-Echo Imaging
247
Introduction
247
Signal Level During Transient State
249
Approach to Steady State by Assuming RF Spoiling
250
Approach to Steady State Without Spoiling
252
Magnetization Preparation
255
Pre-pulse to Avoid the Transient State in T1-FFE
256
Balanced-TFE Sequences
257
Profile Order
258
Survey of Transient Gradient Echo Methods
259
Contrast and Signal-to-Noise Ratio
271
Introduction
271
Contrast in MR Images
271
The Physical Mechanism of Relaxation in Tissue
273
The BPP Theory of Relaxation in Homogeneous Matter
274
Relaxation Effects in Tissue
276
Fast Exchange
276
Compartments and Slow Exchange
276
Magnetization Transfer
277
Contrast Agents
281
Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)
283
Fundamental Expression for the SNR
284
Patient Loading of the Receiving Circuit
285
Low-Field and High-Field Systems
287
Practical Expression for the SNR
288
Introduction of the Scanning Parameters
289
Influence of the Receiver on the SNR
290
Influence of Relaxation on the SNR
291
Application to Practical Situations
292
SNR for Non-uniform Sampling of the k Plane
296
One-Sided Partial Scans
296
Non-uniform Sampling with Non-linear Trajectories
299
Reduced Matrix Acquisition
299
Other Partial-Scan Methods
300
Motion and Flow
321
Introduction
321
Moving Structures, Artifacts, and Imaging Methods
322
Cardiac Motion
322
Respiratory Motion
324
Ordering of Phase Encoding
324
Breath Hold
325
Respiratory Gating
325
Correction of Respiratory Movement Using Navigator Echoes
325
Tagging
327
Phase Shift Due to Flow in Gradient Fields
328
Velocity Measurement Using a Bipolar Gradient
330
Velocity-Insensitive Gradient Waveform
332
Flow with Acceleration
332
Influence of Field Inhomogeneities and Eddy Currents
334
Flow Artifacts
335
Ghosting Due to Pulsating Flow
335
Flow Voids
335
Shift in Phase-Encoding Direction Due to Flow
336
Velocity-Insensitive Imaging Sequences: Flow Compensation
337
Selection Direction
337
Read-Out Direction
337
Phase-Encoding Direction: Correction for Misregistration
338
Flow Imaging
339
Phase-Contrast Methods
340
Phase-Contrast Angiography
341
Quantitative Flow Based on Phase Contrast
341
Modulus Contrast Methods
344
Inflow Angiography
344
Contrast-Enhanced MR Angiography
346
MR Angiography Based on Magnetization Preparation
349
Black-Blood Angiography
354
Artifacts in Modulus Contrast Angiography
355
Modulus-Contrast Quantitative Flow Measurements
357
Perfusion
358
MR Perfusion Imaging with Dynamic Bolus Studies
358
Arterial Spin Labelling
361
Diffusion
364
Measurement with Diffusion Sensitization in One Direction
366
Diffusion Imaging of the Brain
368
Q-space Imaging
371
Partitioning of the Magnetization into Configurations
423
Introduction
423
Configurations and Phase Diagrams
423
Theory of Configurations
429
Magnetization Expressed in Discrete Fourier Series
430
Rotation
431
Effect of Rotation and Precession on the Configurations
434
Precession Matrix Including (Free) Diffusion
436
Use of the Theory of Configurations to Describe the Examples in Sect. 8.1
437
Multiple Spin-Echo Example
438
Eight-Ball Echo and Stimulated Echo Examples
440
Multi-excitation Pulse Sequences
441
SE-Burst Imaging
443
Excitation Profile for Burst with Single-Phase Excitation
446
Optimized Burst Excitation Using Phase Modulation
448
Combination of Burst with TSE
451
Gradient Recalled Burst Sequences
452
Quest and Preview
454
Theory of Configurations and Well-Known Fast-Imaging Sequences
455
Application to TSE
455
Application to FFE
458
Rotation and Precession Matrices and RF Pulse Design
462
Shinnar--Le Roux (SLR) Transformation
463
The Inverse Shinnar--Le Roux Transformation (ISLR Transformation)
465
Appendix 473
References 477
Index of Abbreviated Terms 493
Index 495

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